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Urinary tract obstruction is a common presentation in clinical practice. Lower urinary tract obstruction, due to urinary calculi, is more common in the male dog. Lower and upper urinary tract obstruction are common in the cat. Male cats may develop urethral obstruction due to feline lower urinary tract disease and mucous plugs or urinary calculi and presentation as a “blocked cat” is very typical. Both male and female cats may develop upper urinary tract obstruction, which is most typically due to calcium oxalate calculi. Upper urinary tract obstruction is more difficult to diagnose and typically when the cat first presents to the veterinary clinic the disease may be advanced, with one previously affected end stage kidney and the second kidney now obstructed. In a cat with azotaemia on blood work a plain abdominal radiograph and renal ultrasound are recommended to screen for upper urinary tract calculi. A range of surgical options a present for management of urinary tract obstruction. Cystotomy for removal of cystic calculi following retrohydropulsion is commonly indicated for urethral obstruction. Upper urinary tract obstruction requires management by a specialist surgeon. The use of a device for bypassing the ureter is described.
- Emergency stabilisation of the patient with urinary tract obstruction
- Diagnostic investigations of upper and lower urinary tract obstruction
- Management options for lower urinary tract obstruction
- Treatment options for upper urinary tract obstruction